Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

What is Thermogravimetry?

Thermogravimetric analysis is a method of thermal analysis in which the mass of a sample is measured over time as the temperature changes. This measurement provides information about physical phenomena, such as phase transitions, absorption and desorption; as well as chemical phenomena including thermal decomposition, and solid-gas reactions (e.g., oxidation or reduction).

Applications

Technical Specifications

Temperature range -180 to 2400°C
Heating rate 0.001 K/min to 200 K/min
Max. sample weight/measuring range 2 g (including crucible)
Gas atmospheres Inert, oxidizing, reducing, measurements under vacuum (for tests such as rubber analysis)
Sample Dimensions Crucible volume up to 350 µl

Example

Determination of the Glass Fiber Content in PA66

Polyamide 66 is a thermoplastic polymer which is used for a wide variety of technical parts.
The stiffness of the PA66 can be increased by suitable fillers such as glass fibers. TGA allows for determination of not only the decomposition of the polymer, but also the precise glass fiber content (residual mass 20.2% at 989°C).
After switching from nitrogen to synthetic air, the TGA curve also shows the content of pyrolytic soot and added carbon black. The c- DTA® peak exhibits the melting peak of PA66 at 260°C (red curve).

More Applications

응용문헌

This application note highlights the capability of the BeFlat® correction being a smart solution for the influence of the heating rate and gas flow without a separate baseline measurement.

NETZSCH TGA systems

TG 209 F1 Libra®

Flexibility with the fittings of this premium instrument for thermogravimetry allow it to cover almost any imaginable application in the range up to 1100°C. The system has many outstanding features: BeFlat® function allows or immediate measurement upon switching on the unit, the system’s heating rates of up to 200 K/min allow for faster results, while its corrosion-resistant ceramic furnace withstands even fluorine- or chlorine-containing polymers, c-DTA® function for the detection of exothermal and endothermal reactions.

STA 449 F5 Jupiter®

The STA 449 F5 Jupiter® is a truly sophisticated instrument with two true measurement techniques (DSC and TGA), easily expandable capabilities, accessories for evolved gas analysis and a complete software package all for a very attractive price.

 

TG 209 F3 Tarsus®

This easy-to-use instrument for thermogravimetry was developed especially for routine applications in the field of plastics, but also finds application in the chemical industry. With a range of up to 1000°C, it is the ideal starter unit and offers the patented c-DTA® for the detection of exothermal and endothermal reactions with DSC.

STA 2500 Regulus

The STA 2500 Regulus is a highly reliable and fully equipped top-loading differential balance ideal for standard STA measurements with frequently changing temperature programs available at an excellent price.

STA 449 F1 Jupiter®

With the STA 449 F1 Jupiter® NETZSCH is setting new standards. Unlimited configuration flexibility and unmatched performance are the foundations for a great variety of application possibilities in the fields of ceramics, metals, plastics, and composites over a broad temperature range (-150°C ... 2400°C).

STA 449 F3 Jupiter®

The STA 449 F3 Jupiter® combines the advantages of a high sensitive thermobalance and a true Differential Scanning Calorimeter. Various furnaces and TG, TGA-DTA and TGA-DSC sensors can be used, whereby the system can be easily optimized for the most versatile applications.