Polymers undergo changes in their thermomechanical properties during heating and cooling. TMA analyses can give insights into molecular orientation and quenching effects during cooling. It allows the design of adhesives and other hybrid joints and quality control of shrink films. TMA analyses can hereby provide valuable insight into the composition, structure, production conditions or application possibilities for various materials.
The TMA 402 F3 Hyperion® Polymer Edition now offers not only to keep the force constant and to measure the length change, but also to change the displacement and measure the corresponding force. This is for example used in a stress relaxation test. Here, a sample is stretched by a specific amount at a defined temperature. During the test, the deformation is kept constant and the progression of the force is recorded. This force continuously decreases as a result of material relaxation. Stress-relaxation is ultimately defined by the residual stress measured after a defined exposure period. The data can be depicted graphically in a stress-time diagram. It is then possible to read off both the stress-relaxation behavior and the values for the relaxation rate and time.
- IC Furnace
-70°C to 450°C using mechanical cooling
- Heating rates
0.001 K/min to 30 K/min
- Measuring ranges/ Δl resolution
500 μm / 0.125 nm
5000 μm (± 2500 μm) / 1.25 nm
- Displacement Control
Displacement static, steps, ramps
- Force range (load at sample)
0.001 N to 3 N without using additional weights
- Force resolution
< 0.01 mN
- Interchangeable sample holder systems
Fused silica, up to 450°C
- Sample dimensions
Expansion/penetration: length: 30 mm max.; sample holder Ø 8 mm
Tension: length: 30 mm max.; width: 6 mm; thickness: 1 mm
3-Point bending: length: 10 mm max.; width: 5 mm
- Automatic sample length determination (precision: 0.01 mm)
1 mass flow controller (MFC, 2nd independent MFC optional), gas flow rate 0 to 250 ml/min software-controlled, inert, oxidizing, reducing, vacuum (10-4 mbar)
- Various accessories
Spacers, crucibles and special wax containers
The Proteus® software allows for properties and methods from previously executed measurement files to be applied with a simple mouse click. The evaluation steps for a reference test run can be saved in a method and applied, fully automatically, to a sample measurement after its termination. It is also possible to have the software highlight any results deviating from the selected quality criteria.
AutoEvaluation, an intelligent software functionality exclusively offered by NETZSCH. It is a self-acting evaluation of thermoanalytical measurement curves without using pre-defined macros. This is an immense support and time saver. AutoEvaluation offers special functions for the evaluation of various materials. When measuring polymers, AutoEvaluation will automatically find the onset of the glass transition as well as the peaks of softening points and evaluate it with just one click.
For temperature-modulated TMA measurements, the modulation amplitude and period can be defined segment by segment. The evaluation software allows for the determination of
- total TMA
- reversing and non-reversing TMA
- total CTE
- reversing and non-reversing CTE
- amplitude and phase
with graphic display of the results curve in multi-window technique. Proteus ® also provides the ability to export graphs and print out or export data as ASCII files.
The Identify database offers a state-of-the-art means of verifying materials; it allows for the comparison of a given curve to other individual curves (e.g., groups of curves in quality control) or to literature data from selected libraries. Any libraries and classes created by the user can be edited or expanded within Identify.
Database entries can be filtered by a variety of criteria, and measurement curves – even those of different types – can be overlapped for purposes of comparison.
The expansion/compression mode is for samples with different geometries, such as cylindrical or rectangular.
The penetration mode determines the softening point of a sample. For this test, a hemispherical or cylindrical probe can be used.
3-point bending sample holder with a bending length of 5 mm is available.
Almost force-free tension measurements due to tension sample holder with fixed lower clamp.
Alignment tool for preparation of samples for measurements in tension mode